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  • Education and Access: A Geographic Divide in Nigeria

    In Nigeria, education levels display sharp regional disparities, especially between the northern and southern halves of the country. This geographical cleavage has played a role in Nigerian politics since the beginning of the Fourth Republic in 1999 due to ethnic and cultural differences between the zones. These variations in identity have been compounded by a lack of healthy political discourse and economic disparities between the north and the south. While the south is traditionally wealthier, safer, and equipped with better infrastructure, the north is much poorer and suffers from instability due to the terrorist group Boko Haram. All of these factors combined have influenced the sphere of education, leaving young students in the north much worse off than their southern counterparts. In Nigeria, the overall attendance rate for 6-11 year olds in schools sits at 61%, a dismally low figure especially considering that primary, elementary, and middle schools are free and mandatory. Ho...
  • Education and Access: Educational Inequality in India

    In 2009, the Indian government passed the Right to Education Act in what became the state’s strongest support of educational rights and opportunity in years. This landmark policy, which made education both free and mandatory for students between the ages of 6 and 14, also eliminated blatant educational discrimation based on race, religion, sex and other personal factors. However, while discrimination is not legalized, there is a clear inequity in education that prevents women from reaching the same level of academic achievement as their male counterparts. Key among obstacles that women face are poverty and misogynistic cultural expectations in which women are still seen as primarily homemakers and care-providers. Sexism, while not state-sanctioned, is often enforced by teachers in the classroom, especially for students at a young age. For these children, who are still developing, pervasive sexism is extremely damaging and can actually convince them to operate within India’s rigidly ...
  • Education and Access: Shifting Gender Roles and Educational Opportunity in Saudi Arabia

    [img]https://www.givology.org/images/user/1842_1553850280072583993.png[/img] In Saudi Arabia, women have long been legally inferior to their male counterparts, creating a patriarchal system of control and vast educational inequality. As a result, a woman’s education is dependent on the permission of her male guardian even past secondary school. For some women, this is not a problem, as their male guardians afford them a great deal of liberty to pursue opportunities and find a job. However, within more traditional families, women are almost entirely cut off from all educational and career opportunities. Nevertheless, in recent years, the liberalization of gender roles has allowed more women to pursue higher education and find work outside of the home. [font="Times New Roman"]Educational institutions themselves such as schools and libraries are segregated by sex. Consequently, women have access to much lower quality books, resources, and school systems than men. Additionally...
  • 10 Books to Read This Summer

    Summer is often cited as the greatest time to pick up a book and try to start a habit. This summer may just be one of the best ones to read. With COVID-19 still ongoing and many of us still confined to the walls of our home, this summer may just be the perfect opportunity to start reading. While we may not be able to sit around a pool on a hot summer day with friends, or journey halfway across the world to some faraway destination, reading can provide us with a journey to other worlds and ideas. Here are 10 books to read this summer: [b]1. Poor Economics by Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo[/b] [b] [/b] Poverty and lack of basic resources are prevailing problems in countries across the world. Poor Economics explains how the poor in today’s world deal with their finances, why they make the decisions they make, and how we can rethink the fight against poverty. [b]2. Capital in the 21st Century by Thomas Piketty[/b] [b] [/b] The future is capitalism. But with rising levels of income an...
  • Education and Access: Redlining in the United States

    In the 1930s, the Federal Housing Administration and other government agencies evaluated neighborhoods across the United States, grading them on their level of stability and prospects for future investment. This practice, known as redlining, was used to isolate and discriminate against black and other minority communities throughout the country. As a result, families in “redlined” areas were labeled economic risks, which dissuaded banks and mortgage lenders from making loans available. Among the devastating effects of this policy was the polarization of the racial wealth gap--at the present day, the average black American family is worth ten times less than their white counterparts. However, the consequences of redlining reach far beyond wealth. In fact, this nearly century-old policy is arguably the most direct cause of educational disparities in the United States and the racial achievement gap. By concentrating minority communities together and then depriving them of access to inv...